ABCD

Koehler Instrument Vietnam, K47100, Máy  đo độ chuẩn độ keo tụ tự động K47100, đại lý Koehler Instrument Vietnam

The Automated Flocculation Titrimeter (AFT) is a highly automated, computerized instrument that acquires oil stability and compatibility parameters directly. The AFT can be used to perform ASTM D6703 test method for Automated Heithaus Titrimetry. The instrument operates as a closed system with accurately controlled temperatures between 20-100°C, important for properly determining Heithaus compatibility parameters. The flocculation point is determined spectroscopically and the results are analyzed by the data acquisition system, virtually eliminating operator error in the interpretation of endpoints. A key benefit to the user is the fact that the asphaltene concentration can be calculated by the software much faster that tradition methods and with more accuracy. The utility of the original Heithaus method has been expanded by developing multiple titration schemes. The software uses the data from the expanded method to predict the proximity to coke formation during heavy oil distillation. Many refiners stop distillation short of coke formation to avoid fouling in distillation equipment, tanks and transfer lines. The expanded AFT methodology allows the refiner to recover additional distillate without the fear of fouling. This attribute of the instrument should allow up to a 1-2% increase in yields if applied to a process. Conversely, the added benefit of being able to predict coking tendency, would prevent fouling of the process and thus decrease the use of energy in production as well as reduce down time due to having to clean vessels after fouling. One of the primary uses of Heithaus values is to predict the compatibility (P Index) of which oils and petroleum residua or asphalts can be mixed together for shipping, processing, or in formulations without causing phase separation. This is valuable to the refiner, researcher, or asphalt jobber who supplies petroleum asphalts for highway and roofing applications because it ensures that compatible asphalt blends are supplied. Incompatible asphalts show early failure in both applications. Coking Index (US Patent 6,773,921)-Stability also influences coke formation in the refining process. Another major use for the AFT is to acquire the data needed to employ the Coking Index. The Coking Index is a quantitative measure of the proximity to coking (fouling) during visbreaking, distillation, transfer and storage of heavy oil. This allows the petroleum refiner to optimize heavy oil processing and to recover the maximum amount of distillate, and to stop the processing before fouling occurs. Solubility Parameter-The solubility parameter at which asphaltenes begin to precipitate and the solubility parameter of the whole oil can be calculated from the AFT data.